Thursday, May 21, 2020

The History of the Cold War Essay - 4156 Words

The History of the Cold War The Cold War is the term used to describe the intense rivalry between the United States and its allies and the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics and its allies. The Soviet Union and its allies were refereed to as the Eastern Bloc and the United States and its allies were referred to as the Western Bloc. The Cold War period lasted from the mid-1940’s until the late 1980’s. During this period international politics were shaped by this intense rivalry between this two great blocs of power and the political ideologies they represented. The United States and its allies represented democracy and capitalism while the Soviet Union and its allies represented communism. The Cold War was truly a global conflict more†¦show more content†¦The Nazi-Soviet pack allowed Hitler to invade Poland and then fight France and Britain without having to worry about the powerful Soviet army. (6) A surprise attack by the Germans on the Soviet Union on June 1941 ended the Nazi-Soviet p act. This drove the Soviet Union to join the allies, but they found no love in the hearts of the United States and Britain. It was only Germany’s might and murder policies that held the Grand Alliance together. (7) As the tide turned in favor of the Allies in the eastern theater, the side where the Soviet Union was fighting on, the soviets army was pushing into several Eastern European countries which were formerly allied or controlled by Germany. As the soviets controlled occupied these countries, they were able to control them. The same fear that had arisen in 1812 arose again: Would Russia become so powerful that it, instead of Germany, would threaten to dominate Europe. (8) To avoid this nightmare Britain and the United States invited the Soviet Union to a conference to discuss how to establish a durable peace. The â€Å"Big Three† met at Yalta, a resort on the Black Sea shore in the southern part of the Soviet Union. At the final diner at Yalta, hosted by Stalin o n February 8, in a toast to Churchill and Stalin, President Roosevelt said he felt â€Å"the atmosphere between them was that of a family.† (9) Harry Hopkins, one of Roosevelt’s closest advisors and his special envoy to other heads of the stateShow MoreRelatedThe Cold War : A New History1650 Words   |  7 PagesThe Cold War lasted for forty years, from 1945 to 1985. Few historians took the time to address the events as they unfolded thus leaving most people with little or no explanations of the development of the war. During this fearful period, nine presidents served Americans and each president thought that the war carried a lot of dangers for forty five years. Accordingly, young Americans, Soviets and other citizens of the world require the services of a scholar with extraordinary gifts to provide insightRead MoreEssay on A History of the Cold War2808 Words   |  12 Pagesrecesses of the city from which he had tried to escape.† This excerpt, from The Col d War: From Yalta To Cuba by Robin W. Winks shows how, despite its name, the Cold War was anything but cold. World War II is considered by most experts to have ended in 1945, when the Japanese signed an unconditional surrender to Allied powers. Although World War II ended, the Cold War was just warming up. A very big part of the Cold War was the arms race. When the United States of America dropped the first atomRead MoreThe Cold War Really Shaped History1983 Words   |  8 Pages The Cold war certainly shaped history in the 1900s as a major global threat due to vast political and military tensions. Historiographical studies have shown that the Cold War was primarily due to conflicting ideologies in the world, in addition to America and the USSR’s ulterior motive for global expansionism. The Americans feared Soviet expansionism across the world, and feared the outcome of Communism spreading. Likewise, the USSR feared a capitalist spread. This essay will outline the differingRead MoreThe Cold War and Its Effect on The History of America Essay1706 Words   |  7 Pages The Cold War was the ideological conflict between the two superpowers of the world, the democratic United States of America and the communist Soviet Union. For over fifty years the two superpowers fought each other indirectly for power and control of the world. The Cold War started after the end of the Second World War in 1945 when the eyes of both superpowers were no longer looking at Nazi Germany, but instead at each other and the fate of the rest of the world. The Cold War began after the SecondRead MoreThe Cold War : A Great Impact On Modern History2724 Words   |  11 PagesWorld War II, tensions between two major military forces in the world, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc, had not diminished. This period of strong political posturing and open disagreement is known in history as the Cold War. The term â€Å"cold† is used to denote that there were no direct and large-scale battles between the two forces, despite being heavily armed with nuclear weaponry and prepar ed for the worst. However, a few regional wars, aided by both sides, were actually fought. The Cold WarRead MoreThe Cold War: A New History by John Lewis Gaddis831 Words   |  4 Pagesof American history was analyzed. The Cold War is rampant with American foreign policy and influential in shaping the modern world. Strategies of Containment outlines American policy from the end of World War II until present day. Gaddis outlines the policies of presidents Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon, including policies influenced by others such as George Kennan, John Dulles, and Henry Kissinger. The author, John Lewis Gaddis has written many books on the Cold War and is an avidRead MoreThe Cold War Has Been Examined Throughout History911 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction: The Cold War has been examined throughout history. The question is often debated about what theory best explains the cause for the cold war. It is often argued whether or not one explanation does the best job at explaining the Cold War. The disagreement is often between about what forces pushed for the struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union for power. The best explanation often states that there were many factors at play such as the bi-polarity of great powers ofRead MoreThe Cold War : A New History By John Lewis Gaddis1690 Words   |  7 Pagessince the dawn of American history. The American revolt against the arrogant, totalitarian regime set a precedent for the future events in which the nation came together to oppose anything that went against the concept of democracy, and capitalism. Communism, or Marxism posed as a huge threat to the free mined Western societies, thus resulting in world wars that left perilous aftermaths, and bred an ongoing conflict between the two global political establishments. The Cold War, which is most commonlyRead MoreThe Cold War : A New History By John Lewis Gaddis Essay1711 Words   |  7 PagesI chose The Cold War: A New History by John Lewis Gaddis for my book to review. I originally read parts of this book for History of the International System, but we did not read the entire book in class, only certain chapters. It’s been two years since I’ve picked up the book, and after reading about the Cold War in the context of U.S. foreign policy rather than simply an international history class, it seems like an entirely new book. I really like how the book into broken up into a series of themesRead MoreRethinking Cold War History, By John Lewis Gaddis1340 Words   |  6 PagesGaddis, John L. We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press1997. We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History, is a book about the Cold War. This book was written by John Lewis Gaddis. John L. Gaddis is a Cold War historian. He portrays the Cold War in English and through the dialect of others. The thesis of this book is, I seek to situate this book at a particular point in time, not to claim timelessness for it. This is what I think we know now but did not know

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Basic Functions Of Management - 1537 Words

Management Management is defined as the process of coordinating people, and other resources to achieve the goals of an organization. Management consists of a variety of things and very active job and duty. Management includes knowing basic management function, what types of managers there are, skill-sets required to be a manager, leadership quality, and decision making. Altogether these different sections are taken in a much broader perspective diving into the four main resources of management which consists of material resource, human resource, financial resource, and informational resources. Through these different parts of the management system, each different part will be looked at in depth and detail. Starting with what the basic†¦show more content†¦This is just the start of what managers can use to implement change and randomly place into their firms work order. Planning and organizing are not on a schedule. Thirdly of the basic management of functions is leading and motivating. Working in a management system, these things are kept to keeping a happy and respectable work environment. Leading is defined as the process of influencing people to work toward a common goal, as motivating is providing reasons for people to work. Kristine Tucker from small business stated â€Å"Lead by example† if you are the manager who is lazy and accomplishes nothing, employees will follow. This is of great importance to understand when in a manager position because as a manager it is of that person to be the example Lastly, of the basic management functions is controlling. What this means is as a manager there is always evaluating and regulating going on in the work environment, to ensure that all goals achieved. Carter McNamara wrote, â€Å"Delegation is an approach to get things done, in conjunction with other employees.† And continued to say â€Å"Performance reviews provide an opportunity for supervisors and their employees to regularly communicate about goals, how well those goals should be met, how well the goals are being met and what must be done to continue to meet (or change) those

Fcuk Swot Free Essays

SWOT Analysis Prepared for: Prepared by: 2 September 2008 Introduction I have created this SWOT analysis on French Connection’s Regent St. branch. I have identified and discussed the strengths/weaknesses of the store, and examined the opportunities and threats it may face. We will write a custom essay sample on Fcuk Swot or any similar topic only for you Order Now Strengths French Connection targets a fashion-oriented customer typically aged 18 – 35 and produces fashion-forward, well made, on trend, accessible clothing. Positioning is in the upper end of the mass market so that pricing reflects the good quality and fashion element of the offer. It is a well-known brand that all young adults can identify. The brand holds a large share of the competitively priced clothing industry, with a large capital they are able to advertise and market the products on television, Internet and large billboards across the globe. During my visit in the Regent St. branch, I found a nice, clean and well presented store. The strong shop window invites for a quick browse. The good layout gives grate opportunities for positioning best sellers, new collection and add-ons. Most of current trends are presented in the new collection. Very good designs in women’s wear satisfying different tastes and needs. Effective merchandising in women’s area, good stock presentation is giving great ideas for matching items and for whole outfits. Good range from classy to casual. Staff has good a product knowledge. Management seems committed and confident. Comfortable shopping ambiance. Down stairs till area good selling point. The location offers a wide range of customers. (high footfall) Weaknesses Poor selection of men’s wear. Men’s Visual merchandising is not as strong as the women’s, although in the shop window they were presented better then the lady’s. Unfortunately I found the men’s area half as effective as the women’s. I know most of the company’s profit is coming from women’s wear but I think there are a lot of potential male customers out there and a little bit more focus on men’s wear would bring them in more often. Customer service: During my visit I was approached once after 15 minutes browsing in the store. The staff seemed demotivated and there was no interaction with customers on the shop floor nor by the till. After trying on an item wasn’t offered a different color in the same style, a different style in the same color or an add-on. Lack of selling techniques) Also I wasn’t informed about witch items are on sale or where can I find them and they are quite â€Å"hidden† so found it a bit difficult to identify them. (Lack of promoting sales in store) Staff left their sections unattended leaving no possibility for me asking for help. (Lack of attention to the shop fl oor) Store’s interior needs a refit with a trendier design. Changing room on the ground floor is tight and during peak hours just disappointment for customers. Kid’s section upstairs easy to miss out for customers who don’t even know there’s a selection for kids. Ground floor till area poor of add-ons, found just a small box of bangles. Opportunities More staff meetings and training on selling techniques, customer service, customer relations (keeping regular customers is one of the first priorities). Doing role plays during quiet times to build confidence. Customer service checklist twice a week monitoring staff performance with regular feedbacks. (constructive criticism. ) More team spirit. On the maping plan assign staff to sections so they’re responsible for it for the day. Great visual merchandising opportunities due to store layout. Monitoring sales week by week and merchandise accordingly. Staff (Men mostly) wearing latest trends this way giving examples for customers what to look for. Sales assistant who’s greeting customers by the entrance promoting sales or at least inform customers where to find items on sale and the new collection. Because of the location lot of tourists are visiting the store, they are a good amount of potential sales. (With the right atmosphere and service it’s easy to get them spending). Under the staircase in the men’s section is a good area for positioning better selling products because that is the only spot what you can see from the upper level when you’re looking down if there’s more to see downstairs. Ground floor changing room more organized and approachable. Local competitors have poor products. Can surprise competitors. Threats †¢ Customers leaving store without purchasing an item. †¢ Theft (Staff not paying attention), high stock loss. †¢ Loosing regular customers and potential regular customers. †¢ High staff turnover. †¢ Poor reputation among customers. ———————– fcuk fcuk How to cite Fcuk Swot, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Weimar Republic Essays (2325 words) - German Revolution Of 191819

Weimar Republic Weimar Republic There were various factors that contributed to the failure of the Weimar Republic of Germany and the ascent of Hitler's National Socialist German Workers Party into power on January 30, 1933. Various conflicting problems were concurrent with the result of a Republic that, from the outset, its first governing body the socialist party (SPD) was forced to contend with. These included the aspect of German imperialism, the unresolved defeat of 1918, financial collapse and the forced struggle against the activities of the National party as well as inflation. Other factors that influenced the failure of Weimar were the structural weaknesses induced by the constitution and the basic lack of support for the Republic among the German people particularly amongst the elite. All in all, these aspects were the major causes that doomed the Weimar republic to ultimate failure and the eventual ascent of Hitler's nationalist party to power. The new socialist government of Weimar (SPD), whose constitution was adopted on July 30, 1919, entered a situation they by no means created. The period during which they were appointed to rule was associated with defeat and misery, and when disorder was nationwide. The situation then, was that of revolution. However, rather than to make it a revolution of there own, they co-operated with the liberals and with the catholic centre party to lead Germany in a reformed version of her old self. In June 1919, they voted to comply with the treaty of Versailles. However, the signing of the Treaty served to promote protest and unrest amongst the soldiers, sailors and the German people generally, and democracy thus resulted in becoming an alien device. The imperial army, for instance, never got over the humiliation of surrender, which they felt, was a 'stab in the back' by their own countrymen. The sailors at Kiel mutinied in a last desperate effort on October 28 and on November 9 1919, the streets were filled with crowds marching to demonstrate at the center of Berlin. Furthermore, compliance with the Treaty of Versailles meant that Germany would have to make reparation payments it could scarcely afford. This fact placed a heavy strain on the already suffering economy of Germany which was bankrupted by four years of war thus ensuing in the ascend of inflation and the occasioning of the respite of payments by Germany in 1922. The French reacted by occupying the Ruhr, a major industrial area of Germany, in January 1923. This was felt a grave humiliation by the German people and eventuated in widespread discontent. Germany's currency was already fragile, and in face of the occurring circumstances consequent to the Ruhr invasion and the overprinting of currency, the Mark fell to chronic levels, eventually reaching the value of four billion against the US dollar, which therefore generated massive hyperinflation. The economic instability, on top of the disillusionment and resent caused by the humiliating peace settlement, resulted in vast sections of German society feeling alienated by the Republic. They responded by attacking the democracy and as a consequence it became impossible to control the hostility and discontent. The deteriorating economic and social situation also managed to wreak havoc on the political atmosphere of the time and the Republic wound up having no positive friends and too many enemies. The Republic faced opposition from the extreme left by Spartacists who resorted to force in efforts to overturn the Republic. In March 1920, the Freikorps who in Berlin launched a pro-Monarchist putsch in an attempt to install Wolfgang Kapp as Chancellor also challenged the Republic from the right. During this incident troops both refused to defend the Republic or take action against Freikorps. In protest the working classes then responded by organizing a general strike in Berlin, which had the effect of frustrating this putsch. The present regime was able to survive despite the numerous threats. Extremism remained to pollute the atmosphere, the evidence being represented in the alarming amount of political assassinations that continued occurring. In evidence, according to an estimate of the Minister of Justice, rightists committed 354 murders between 1919 and 1923. During this time, when the Republic was suffering most and was being threatened, practically from all sides, Hitler had been making affective attempts to capitalize on the resultant circumstances. He exploited the economic collapse by blaming it on all those he wished to portray as enemies. These were the same enemies he declared as the 'November criminals' who had brought about Germany's defeat in 1918. Hitler's plan was to seize power in Munich, and, with Bavaria as his base, to launch a march on Berlin not unlike

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Rotator Cuff Essays - Shoulder, Synovial Bursae, Free Essays

Rotator Cuff Essays - Shoulder, Synovial Bursae, Free Essays Rotator Cuff It is often difficult to tell where concepts actually begin. It is certainly not obvious who first used the term rotator or musculotendinous cuff. Credit for first describing ruptures of this structure is often given to J. G. Smith, who in 1834 described the occurrence of tendon ruptures after shoulder injury in the London Medical Gazette. (Smith, 1834) In 1924 Meyer published his attrition theory of cuff ruptures. (Meyer, 1924) In his 1934 classic monograph, Codman summarized his 25 years of observations on the musculotendinous cuff and its components and discussed ruptures of the supraspinatus tendon. (Codman, 1934b) Beginning 10 years after the publication of Codman's book and for the next 20 years, McLaughlin wrote on the etiology of cuff tears and their management. (McLaughlin, 1944, McLaughlin and Asherman, 1951) Oberholtzer first carried out arthrography in 1933 using air as the contrast medium. (Oberholtzer, 1933) Lindblom and Palmer (Lindblom and Palmer, 1939) used radio-opa que contrast and described partial-thickness, full-thickness, and massive tears of the cuff. Codman recommended early operative repair for complete cuff tears. He carried out what may have been the first cuff repair in 1909. (Codman, 1934b) Current views of cuff tear pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment are quite similar to those that he proposed over 50 years ago. Pettersson has provided an excellent summary of the early history of published observations on subacromial pathology. Because of its completeness, his account is quoted here. (Pettersson, 1942) As already mentioned, the tendon aponeurosis of the shoulder joint and the subacromial bursa are intimately connected with each other. An investigation on the pathological changes in one of these formations will necessarily concern the other one also. A historical review shows that there has been a good deal of confusion regarding the pathological and clinical observations on the two. The first to observe morbid processes in the subacromial bursa was Jarjavay, (Jarjavay, 1867) who on the basis of a few cases gave a general description of subacromial bursitis. His views were modified and elaborated by Heineke (Heineke, 1868) and Vogt. (Vogt, 1881) Duplay (Duplay, 1872) introduced the term periarthritis humeroscapularis to designate a disease picture characterized by stiffness and pain in the shoulder joint following a trauma. Duplay based his observations on cases of trauma to the shoulder joint and on other cases of stiffness in the shoulder following dislocation, which he had studied at autopsy. The pathological foundation for the disease was believed by Duplay to lie in the subacromial and subdeltoid bursa. He thought that the cause was probably destruction or fusion of the bursa. Duplay's views, which were supported by his followers, Tillaux (Tillaux, 1888) and Desch, (Desche, 1892) were hotly disputed. His opponents, Gosselin and his pupil Duronea (Duronea, 1873) and Desplats, (Desplats, 1878) Pingaud a nd Charvot, (Pinguad and Charvot, 1879) tried to prove that the periarthritis should be regarded as a rheumatic affection, neuritis, etc. In Germany, Colley (Colley, 1899) and Kuster (Kuster, 1882) were of practically the same opinion regarding periarthritis humeroscapularis as Duplay. Roentgenography soon began to contribute to the problem of humeroscapular periarthritis. It was not long before calcium shadows began to be observed in the soft parts between the acromion and the greater tuberosity. (Painter, 1907) The same finding was made by Stieda, (Stieda, 1908) who assumed that these calcium masses were situated in the wall and in the lumen of the subacromial bursa. These new findings were indiscriminately termed bursitis calcarea subacromialis or subdeltoidea. The term bursoliths was even used by Haudek (Haudek, 1911) and Holzknecht. (Holzknecht, 1911) Later, however, as the condition showed a strong resemblance to humeroscapular periarthritis, it became entirely identified with the latter. In America, Codman(Codman, 1984) made a very important contribution to the question when he drew attention to the important role played by changes in the supraspinatus in the clinical picture of subacromial bursitis. Codman was the first to point out that many cases of inability to abduct the arm are due to incomplete or complete ruptures of the supraspinatus tendon. With Codman's findings it was proved that humeroscapular periarthritis was not only a disease condition localized in the subacromial bursa, but that pathological changes also occurred in the tendon aponeurosis of the shoulder joint. This

Sunday, March 1, 2020

What Makes a Compelling Romance Novel

What Makes a Compelling Romance Novel What Makes a Compelling Romance Novel? Ann Leslie Tuttle worked at Harlequin Books - a division of HarperCollins - for over 20 years, most recently as a Senior Editor. During her tenure, she acquired and edited NYT and USA Today bestselling authors in romance, women's fiction, and mystery, including Sylvia Day, Julia London, Lisa Renee Jones, and Hank Phillippi Ryan.If you know how a story will end, why would you want to read the book? That’s the question that romance writers constantly struggle to answer. Readers come to the genre knowing they will (almost) always get a happy ending in which the protagonists find and profess their love.To entice readers, writers must therefore deliver a fresh premise with strong, evocative prose and pacing that gets to the heart of the story - usually beginning with the protagonists meeting in the first chapter. These will be the elements that usually prompt someone to pick up the book and start reading. Most importantly, the writer’s crafting of the two main characters and their emotional journeys is what will keep the reader hooked.Having been an editor working on romance titles for well over 20 years, I’ve seen both debut and experienced authors struggle to create compelling characters whose emotional push-and-pull is strong enough to sustain the length of the story. Over the years, I’ve pulled together my own list of trouble spots - and ways to surmount them - that I’d like to share with you now. See what makes a compelling romance novel here! Trouble Spot #1: CharacterizationThe best lesson I ever received in characterization was at a writers’ conference, where an author who was pitching me told me that she wrote horoscopes for a living. The writer took that skill and developed such detailed horoscopes for the hero and heroine in her story that she knew precisely who they were regarding their tastes and personalities, what obstacles they faced, what had occurred in their past or backstory, etc.While I wouldn’t recommend that every romance writer start building astrological charts, I would encourage you to make sure you really know who your protagonists are. Delve deeply into their stories so that they’re not just one-dimensional stereotypes. Indeed, the more (believable) hardships they’ve endured in the past, the more material you will have to mine.Keep in mind that while stories featuring large families are popular with readers, it can often be a challenge to write about a presumably tortured hero who comes from such a loving, happy home. But if he’s served in the military or lost a close friend in a childhood accident, he may have other emotional reserves upon which you can draw. id=attachment_15175 style="width: 910px" class="wp-caption aligncenter">"Oh, Mr. Darcy!" (image: BBC)In the end, it’s all about the emotional conflict our romantic leads must surmount that makes their story so compellingThe emotional conflict is not to be confused with the external one. The external conflict usually revolves around an issue of miscommunication, perhaps differing career and money goals - or if you want to kick it up a notch, an external threat. (This is particularly effective when one of the main characters is on the run, or in hiding.)For example, the heroine might have left town eight years ago, believing her high school boyfriend didn’t love her simply because he never got her note or phone call - this is the external conflict they must resolve if they want to patch things up. Or maybe the protagonists believe they can’t be together because one lives on the East Coast and the other on the West Coast. These kinds of conflicts can usually be o vercome by a heartfelt conversation or compromise, but it sometimes involves uncovering the main players in a global threat and taking them down.A strong emotional conflict boils down to either a question of trust or fear. For instance, if your hero lost his first wife to cancer, it’s understandable that he won’t want to run the risk of ever experiencing that all-consuming pain again. Or if the heroine shared her deepest secret with an ex who betrayed her trust, she’s probably reluctant to open up to a new partner.In each of these emotionally fraught cases, the conflict is deep and will require some growth on the part of your hero and heroine to recognize that, despite high stakes involved, love is worth putting oneself on the line.Even if one of your characters first realizes and even confesses their love, the resolution of the conflict should take up most of the book (Elizabeth and Darcy, anyone?). If you’ve created a conflict that is sufficiently compe lling, there should not be an instance where both the protagonists confess their love, only to be driven apart again by some external threat or unsolved thread.Yes, readers may know how your story ends. But with multi-faceted protagonists, emotional appeal, great plotting, and a strong conflict, they will still want to travel with the characters as they overcome each milestone on their journey to finding love.For more help with writing great romance, you can also take inspiration from any of the books on these lists:The 10 Best Historical Romance Novels Like OutlanderThe 25 Best Romance Authors and Their Must-Reads30+ Best Young Adult Romance Books That You Can't Miss Out On40+ Paranormal Romance Books with BiteWhat are some of your experiences writing romances? Share your thoughts in the comments below!

Friday, February 14, 2020

Different approaches to performance management Essay

Different approaches to performance management - Essay Example Performance management is using by countries such GDP, organizations and individuals. Performance management is troubled to get the best performance from person, but goes extra in that it also aspire to get the best performance from the team and from the organization as an entire (R. Wayne Mondy). Performance management derives from the human resource management approach as a strategic and incorporated approach to the management and growth of people. The procedure of recognize, evaluating and mounting the work performance of employees in the organization, so that the organizational purpose and objectives are more efficiently achieved, while at the similar time benefiting employees in terms of credit, receiving feedback, catering for labor needs and offering career leadership. This definition emphasizes that performance management is a procedure. We can see the exemplify following: From this definition, we can believe that performance management is worried by means of humanizing not only the performance of the individual, but also the performance of the team and the organization. ... gnificant thing of performance management is set up a system in which individuals and groups take blame for the continuous development of commerce processes, and of their own skills and contributions. 2.2 The Objectives of Performance Management System 2.2.1 Discrimination A manager must try to discriminate objectively between those who are contributing to the achievement of the organization's objectives and those who are not. In other word, a manager must be talented to appraisal an individual's past performance and assess strengths, level of effort and areas to reward and expand subordinates. Here the focal point is on what the employee has really done in the past, and an effort is made to build on the employee's strengths and make development in other areas so that the employee can carry out more efficiently in the future (Dessler, 1999). 2.2.2 Reward For performance to be encouraged, rewards are necessary. When a managers reward a part of subordinates for their past work, other subordinate will recognized they must work harder in the future. Reward is also a useful tool for motivate employees, suing a system like performance-related pay, to best performance at work. 2.2.3 Development The third objective of the performance management is growth. It includes expand person, term and organization. Performance management as a system concerns not only just for the past, but also for the future. When employees reach their full potential, the organization can also benefit fully from their abilities and contributions (Arthur Sherman, 1998, p.323). 2.2.4 Communication As a two ways system, performance management can also construct a kind of feedback flanked by employees and managers. Employee communiqu is a basic part in the system. It is because an effectual performance